Rivanna Master Naturalists in Fluvanna County

Contributed by RMN volunteers Walter Hussey, Ida Swenson, John Wilkinson, and Pat Burkett

Rivanna Master Naturalists are becoming more active in Fluvanna County and doing great education and stewardship work to benefit the county’s natural resources and community members.

volunteer kneeling in field next to a sign saying "Quail Recovery Team Member"

Rivanna Master Naturalist volunteer Walter Hussey

One major new effort, led by RMN volunteer Walter Hussey, has been wildlife habitat restoration at Pleasant Grove Park. Several years ago Fluvanna County purchased a huge parcel of undeveloped farm land along the Rivanna in Palmyra. Sports fields and trails were added and the old farm house restored and turned into a museum about farm and river life in the area since the early English settlements. However the plentiful natural history at the Park also needed attention. Virginia Master Naturalists worked with Fluvanna’s Parks & Rec office to develop a plan for the stewardship of the natural resources at Pleasant Grove Park. One of our first efforts was to gain approval for a renaturalization of almost 50 acres of parkland that had been farm fields but were now being mowed. After 2 appearances in front of the Board of Supervisors, during which the Master Naturalist presentation appeared to be the key turning point, we got approval to return and maintain these areas in a natural state. Since then, we have developed a visitor educational brochure about wildlife habitats in the Park; marked the spraying and ripping of the fescue sod; assisted in a grant for, and the execution of, the planting of almost 300 trees as hedgerow anchors around the fields; laid out, and assisted in the building of, several new trails in the fields; aided the Girl Scouts in development of a tree identification trail (along with Ida Swenson); conducted an invasive removal pull and prepared an area for the installation of a Pollinator Garden next Spring.

RMN, and our work here in Fluvanna, were the subject of the cover article in Fluvanna’s local newspaper, the Fluvanna Review.

two volunteers standing in river holding a car tire

Rivanna Master Naturalists John Wilkinson and Pat Burkett removing tires from the Rivanna River

New RMN chapter members and Fluvanna residents, Patricia Burkett and John Wilkinson, led another successful stewardship project in the county in partnership with the Rivanna Conservation Society. After noticing many old tires on the bottom of the Rivanna River, they organized a tire clean-up event. It was so successful that they organized two follow-up events to take out even more tires. In total, around 150 tires were removed from the river between Crofton and Palmyra.  This project was also featured in the Fluvanna Review (see page 15.)

In addition to these new stewardship efforts, RMN volunteer Ida Swenson has continued to lead a 4-H Junior Naturalist club in the county. Ida also has been heavily involved over the years in Fluvanna Public Schools, working mainly with the High School and the Elementary Schools. Programs at the Scheier Natural Area have also been on her list! She and Walter are helping plan the second annual Earth Day Festival on April 25. She and Donita Ahearn enjoyed teaching on a high school field trip to the Rivanna River; the highlight was watching Pat Burkett, John Wilkenson, and Dan Triman float down the river with one of their loads of tires.

Rivanna Master Naturalist volunteers also participate in Stream Watch in Fluvanna County. Ida and Donita have adopted two sites. Other MNs test the Rivanna River, while spots are still open for Cunningham Creek, Raccoon Creek, Cary’s Creek and others!

Newly planted trees with protective tubes in a line across a field

Newly planted trees at Pleasant Grove

As we continue our re-naturalization and nature education efforts at Pleasant Grove Park, there are a multitude of RMN volunteer opportunities. Please contact Walter Hussey at whthinker [at] yahoo [dot] com if you’d like to be a part of this exciting project.

Some efforts where we could use volunteers this year include:

  • Planting 400 DGIF and NPS donated potted plants in the Pollinator Garden on Earth Day, 4/25
  • Planting 250 American Plum trees in additional hedgerows and wildlife food plots when DOF delivers the trees later in Feb/ Mar
  • Planting 2.8 acres of wildlife food seeds when DGIF delivers seeds in early Spring
  • Installing a Blue Bird Nesting Trail with VBS bluebird houses
  • Conducting hikes through these nature areas
  • Building a Kids and Family Nature Hike Trail
  • Producing nature interpretive guides for existing trails
  • Developing nature education programs
  • Organizing and conducting fescue eradication and other invasive pulls
  • Developing nature activities such as bird sighting reports, self guided nature scavenger hunts, etc. for the park
  • And of course all the planning, organizing, preparations, grant applications, etc that go with the above!
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Learn More About Becoming a Master Naturalist

Are you interested in becoming a Virginia Master Naturalist but are not sure what is involved or if it is right for you?

group of 7 volunteers with binocularsWould you like to learn more about the program, what you may gain and how you can join a community of volunteers to help protect Virginia’s natural resources?

The Rivanna Master Naturalists are conducting three Information Sessions ahead of the annual Basic Training Class which begins February 10, 2015.   The Information Sessions will be held on December 16 at 7 PM and January 6 at 7 PM or January 11 at 2 PM at the Ivy Creek Natural Area Education Buillding at 1780 Earlysville Road, Charlottesville.   During these sessions we will review the program and schedule so that you gain a better understanding of the scope and topics that will be covered.   We will also discuss the requirements for completing the course and certification.  Several local master naturalists will be there to share what they have gained from this program and how they fit the volunteer requirements into their lives.  You will learn what types of activities are available and hear what motivates our members.  You may also find the Virginia Master Naturalist website quite helpful   http://www.virginiamasternaturalist.org.  Please join us at one of the above sessions.

Applications for 2015 class are due January 12.

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Neighborhood Nature Walks in October and November

Rivanna Master Naturalist volunteers will be leading Neighborhood Nature Walks on Sundays in October and November.  These hikes take place at city parks and are designed to engage the communities near those parks.  young child holding binoculars

All walks will be on Sunday afternoons, and will start at 2 o’clock sharp at the upper pavilion in each park. Walks will be canceled if it is raining or snowing.

The “Nature Walks for Children” are aimed toward children from 6 to 12 years old; all children must be accompanied by an adult. The other walks are aimed toward adults and interested young people 12 and up.

If you have questions or want more information, feel free to e-mail Tony Russell at taorivertony [at] gmail [dot] com or call 434-872-4571 during regular business hours.

October 19 – 2:00-3:00 pm, Forest Hills Park, “Nature Walk for Children”
October 26 -2:00-3:30 pm, Forest Hills Park, “Birds in Our Neighborhood”
November 2 -2:00-3:00 pm, Washington Park, “Exploring the Bog Garden”
November 9 -2:00-3:00 pm, Washington Park, “Nature Walk for Children”
November 16 -2:00-3:30 pm, Forest Hills Park, “Trees in Our Neighborhood”
November 23 -2:00-3:00 pm, Washington Park, “Trees in Our Neighborhood”

Forest Hills Park is at 1022 Forest Hills Avenue in Charlottesville.
Washington Park is at Preston Avenue and 10th Street NW in Charlottesville.

The Virginia Master Naturalist program is open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, genetic information, marital, family, or veteran status, or any other basis protected by law. An equal opportunity/affirmative action employer.  If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact Michelle Prysby at (434-872-4571/TDD*) during business hours of 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event. *”TDD number is (800) 828-1120.

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Rivanna Master Naturalists Go Native: Creating Habitat, Protecting Water Quality, and Enhancing Appreciation of Native Plants


This article was written by RMN volunteer Bitsy Waters, with photos from Devin Floyd and other RMN volunteers and partners.  An expanded version of the text and more photos are available as three PDF files on our Publications page and as printed posters that can hang on our chapter’s display board for use at events.

volunteers planting trees in a parkRMN volunteers are actively involved in the design, planting and maintenance of many native plant gardens and buffers in our area.  These native plant gardens have a number of goals, including creating habitat, protecting water quality, and developing broader understanding of the role of native plants in the health of our natural environment, not to mention the beauty these areas bring to our landscapes!

RMN volunteers work with schools, local governments, state agencies, and a host of non-profit partners to create and maintain these natural areas. Generally, partner organizations take the lead and ask for RMN help in installing and maintaining the gardens and buffers, but our members often play a major role in helping partners design the gardens and select the plants as well.

Many of our local schools are creating native plant gardens. This, along with creating kitchen gardens, is helping children learn about what it takes to sustain wildlife and grow our own food. Attracting butteries is always exciting too!

Local governments in our area are becoming increasingly focused on the value of natural plants in protecting our streams, managing stormwater and sustaining wildlife. Albemarle County has created a Piedmont Virginia Native Plant Web Database to support public and private efforts to use native plants:

Volunteer efforts have reached beyond our immediate area. They include native tree planting and seed collection in Shenandoah National Park and helping launch the Mid-Atlantic Regional Seed Bank for native seed collection with other east coast partners. These are part of larger regional and national eftorts to preserve and plant native species.

Ix Park Ecosystem Installation

photo of native plant landscapingCenter for Urban Habitats Rivanna Master Naturalist graduate Devin Floyd has founded the Center for Urban Habitats (CUH) in Charlottesville. The Center’s mission is to advance understanding of biodiversity and natural history in the Charlottesville area by installing and monitoring experimental plots that exemplify local native plant and animal ecosystems. CUH is currently installing a large native plant community on a former industrial site in the heart of downtown Charlottesville. RMN and other volunteers are helping the Center with this effort. The installation at the IX Park is happening at the site of a buried stream that was once the heart of a vibrant ecosystem. numerous butterflies on blooming Common Milkweed plantA meandering walking path was designed using stream flow geometry, and it courses through the native ecosystem and traces the long lost footprint of Pollock’s Branch, which now runs through an underground pipe. When the meadow is completed it will contain more than 5,000 locally adapted native plants of more than 100 species. The site will convert roughly 12,000 square feet of neglected urban industrial space (surrounded by businesses, a parking lot and residences) to a vibrant ecosystem teaming with wildlife.

The plants were chosen as a community of interrelated species, rather than as a collection of specimens. This project involves more than just putting native plants in the ground. It replicates plant and wildlife communities for a broader ecosystem approach. A variety of wildlife is already being drawn to the site. Pollinating insects, birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals are benefitting from the diversity of local milkweeds, mountain mints, asters, goldenrods, eupatoriums, and other plants that have been installed.

Other Native Planting Projects Rivanna Master Naturalists Have Helped Create and Maintain

  • Bog Garden at Washington Park
    Partners: Albemarle Garden Club, Piedmont Master Gardeners, and Charlottesville Department of Parks and Recreation
  • Buttery Garden at Ivy Creek Natural Area
    Partners: Piedmont Garden Club, Piedmont Master Gardeners and Ivy Creek Foundation
  • Clark School Native Plant Garden
    Partners: Clark School, Charlottesville City School Yard Garden Program, Center for Urban Habitats and Thomas Jeerson Soil and Water Conservation District
  • Crozet Elementary School Rain and Streamside Gardens
    Partners: Crozet Elementary School, Albemarle County Schools
  • Loft Mountain Native Planting and Seed Collecting
    Partner: Shenandoah National Park
  • Monarch Garden at Burnley Moran School
    Partner: Charlottesville City Schools
  • Mid-Atlantic Regional Seed Bank (MARSB)
    Partners: New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and others
  • Piedmont Virginia Community College Native Plant Garden
    Partners: PVCC and Albemarle County
  • Quarry Park Native Plant Buffer
    Partners: Rivanna Conservation Society, Charlottesville Department of Parks and Recreation, U.Va. Batten School, Peace Lutheran Church
  • Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Native Plant Garden at Albemarle County Office Building
    Partners: VCE and Albemarle County

New native gardens and landscapes are being created all the time — is there one near you?

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NABA Butterfly Count and Class: What a great turn-out…of people, that is.

This article is written by VMN volunteer and Rivanna Chapter member Terri Keffert, who co-founded and co-coordinates the Albemarle County NABA Butterfly Count.

About Our Count

A record number of eager and curious participants joined in on both the Advanced Butterfly Identification class in June and the annual Albemarle County/Charlottesville North American Butterfly Association (NABA) count that followed. Unfortunately, the same can’t be said for the number of butterflies that were counted – following the great spangled fritillary butterfly with wings opensecond long cold winter in a row, the numbers of individuals and species were significantly lower this summer.Over fifty intrepid students from Albemarle and surrounding counties came out to Ivy Creek Natural Area to learn how to identify butterflies on a stormy night on June 11, 2014. Nancy Weiss and Terri Keffert shared many of the marvelous characteristics that are used to distinguish each species from another, including some butterfly trivia along the way.

All that newfound or refreshed knowledge was then put to good use on Saturday, June 14, when 39 volunteers weresplit into three teams led by Nancy, Terri, and Laura Seale and sent to sites across the county to count butterflies. What a beautiful day it was! Temperatures were in the high 70s/low 80s and sunny. But signs of the long, cold winter were evident. Many of the flowers that pollinators love so much were still not blooming, or barely. But more than that, the butterflies that were so active after 2013’s similar winter were not there this year. One concern was the lack of Eastern Tiger Swallowtails and the ever-present Cabbage Whites that are usually so prolific every year. The hope then was that the butterflies, like the flowers, were just getting a late start this year. However, now at the end of the summer, while numbers have risen, the populations still do not seem to have recovered.

The Rivanna Master Naturalist website has the data sheets for 2014, as well as a comparison summary of previous years’ counts and conditions.

Overall, across all six sites, we counted 217 individuals and 19 different species, with Great Spangled Fritillaries, Eastern Tailed Blues, and Silvery Checkerspots dominating the counts. As a comparison, 535 individuals and 27 species were counted last year. Even in 2012, when the survey took place the day after the great derecho and temperatures were blistering hot, we counted 275 individuals and 26 species.  The data from 2014 and a comparison summary of previous year’s counts and conditions are posted on our Publications page.

But this is why it’s so important to perform these surveys – to be able to see the anomalies, and to become aware of possible trends or environmental problems that may be occurring. Myself, I’m optimistic that the butterflies will recover by next year if the winter conditions aren’t repeated.

Many thanks from Nancy and Terri to all who helped with this count and all who wanted to!

Where have all the butterflies gone?

great spangled fritillary butterfly with wings closedConcern about the lack of butterflies this year in Charlottesville and Albemarle County has generated much discussion about why this has happened. Even now, at the end of the summer, the diversity of species and the number of individuals is much lower than it has been in prior years.

One of the stronger hypotheses is that the butterflies were struck by a double whammy this year. First, we’ve had two years of long, cold winters, plus hard frosts this spring. (So many of the plants that normally survive took a hit this year, so it may make sense that the butterfly overwintering life-stage may have had a high mortality rate as well – not that they were reliant on those plants – just an related observation.)

Then perhaps to go along with that is a circle of life issue. The major cicada cycle last year lowered the number of acorns that larger critters had to feed on last winter, thus perhaps encouraging those animals to find and eat the protein-rich caterpillars/chrysalis’ more than what is normal.

I got so excited this morning to see four Eastern Tiger Swallowtails on my Purple Coneflowers! That’s the most I’ve seen together all year so far. Disconcerting when I remember how many of these I usually see all along the roadways and in the fields all summer. John Holden reported with excitement the larger numbers of butterflies he saw up in Shenandoah National Park last week, especially along the mown areas where monardas and other flowers have been allowed to grow. I’m suspecting that with fewer adults earlier in the year, it just may take more time and many generations to recover, but my hope is that they will.

I’ve wondered how far afield this population decrease has occurred. I haven’t talked to anyone or read about any other areas of the country (except the Monarch problem, but that’s a different issue.) But then, I haven’t searched it out either. Since I’m not seeing national headlines about it, it makes me think that it is an environmental issue based on just our region (or wherever similar climate and/or cicadas conditions may have been present.) It’d be interesting to know…

What do you all think? Does that sound feasible? What are your insights? Your theories? Have you read or heard anything?


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Virginia Master Naturalists Improve Charlottesville City Parks

Volunteers planting trees at Quarry Park.Two Rivanna Master Naturalist projects this spring have benefitted everyone who enjoys Charlottesville City Parks.  In April, twenty-two volunteers planted approximately 100 tree seedlings along Moore’s Creek in Quarry Park. Rivanna Master Naturalists coordinated this event with the Rivanna Conservation Society and City of Charlottesville.
Last weekend, on June 7, many Rivanna Master Naturalists participated in the 26th annual Clean the Bay Day, an event spearheaded by the Chesapeake Bay Foundation.  This marks the 6th consecutive year (since 2009) that the Rivanna Master Naturalists have been local Charlottesville area site leaders in partnership with The Nature Conservancy. Other partners this Volunteers carrying trash along trail.year (including the Chesapeake Bay Foundation and The Nature Conservancy) were the Rivanna Conservation Society, Blue Ridge Mountain Sports, Dixon Disposal and the City of Charlottesville. 41 volunteers participated picking up trash by canoe/kayak along a two mile stretch of the Rivanna River from Darden Towe Park to Riverview Park and along 1.5 miles of riverside trails. Approximately 750 pounds of trash were removed.  Rivanna Chapter members Pat Klima and Tex Weaver were the Master Naturalist site leaders and RMN Chapter member Carol Cutler provided educational materials at the Master Naturalist informational table.

Take a visit to Quarry Park or Riverview Park and enjoy the improved habitats!  And, check out more pictures of the buffer planting and of Clean the Bay Day 2014 on our photo sharing site!Volunteers canoeing down Rivanna River collecting trash.

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Rivanna Master Naturalist Ranks Swell With New Class!

posed image of all 2014 Rivanna Master Naturalist training course graduatesLast week, the Rivanna Master Naturalist Class of 2014 completed their last training session.   Thirty-five new Master Naturalists have joined our ranks.   This was our largest class to date and we had several reservations and concerns about how successful we would be with such a large number of students, but everyone on the Curriculum Committee and the class pitched in to make this work.   This class has already contributed more than 530 hours of volunteer time and four members have attained the necessary volunteer and advanced training hours to be certified!  We are very excited to add these volunteers’ talents and enthusiasm to our chapter.

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It’s Bluebird Time

two bluebirds perched outside a wooden nest box.

Pair of bluebirds at a nest box on the Meadowcreek Golf Course.

Eastern  bluebirds are now common in central Virginia due in large part to the building of nest box trails specifically for them.  We had almost lost these cavity nesters by mid twentieth century. Primary causes were loss of habitat as large farming tracts were turned over to development coupled by competition for natural nesting cavities in trees by  non-native species (house sparrows and starlings).  Efforts to return the species to our area began in the 1980s,  Prominent in this effort was Bob Hammond, retired veterinarian, who built and monitored more than 300 bluebird nest boxes throughout the CHO/ Albmarle area.  His trail thrived for more than 25 years but by 2007, after Bob had retired from active duty, nesting productivity was much diminished and many of his sites  badly in need of refurbishing.  In response, that same year, the RMN established a new  project specifically aimed at restoring and maintaining the then officially named  “Bob Hammond Bluebird Trail”.

Today this program is one of the most popular citizen science projects  in the  Rivanna Chapter.  The Hammond trail now consists of 30 sites including parks, schools, hospitals, golf courses, farms and roadways.  In 2013, 2233 native cavity nesters fledged out of the 362 nest boxes on the trail. The vast majority of these fledglings ( 79%)  were bluebirds, fourteen percent were tree swallows, the remainder an assortment of chickadees, titmice and house wrens. It was a very productive season as measured by the number of eggs  developing into fledging birds at  eighty four percent.  This data was sent on to the Virginia Bluebird Society. Thirty four dedicated volunteers monitored these boxes of which twenty three were RMN members.

bluebird nest with eggs and nestlings.

Bluebird nestlings on their first day after hatching.

The bluebird monitor’s season starts in February as nest boxes   are cleaned out in anticipation of the arrival of  breeding  pairs into the area.  Nest building begins usually in late March at which time the monitor begins weekly visits to his/her designated site .  From this time on until sometime in August when the season winds down, the monitor  carefully records  all nesting activity in each box, which species visit, how many eggs are laid, how many hatch and how many hatchlings fledge. Each nesting sequence takes approximately 6.5 weeks to complete.  Here in Central Virginia bluebird pairs usually have two and sometimes  three nestings a year. Throughout the season, the monitor is alert to any signs of predation and responds by installing the proper guard  and/or relocating  the endangered box.

The importance of selecting suitable boxes, with appropriate mounts for nesting success was dramatically reinforced in a recent study by RMN monitor Mary Tillman.  Mary measured productivity at two similar sites, each with 12 nest boxes. Site A  had been fitted  for many years with small, poorly ventilated boxes, mounted on fences posts lacking predator guards, Nest boxes at Site B  were  of a newer model, with good ventilation and well-shaded by  overhanging roofs. These were  mounted on metal poles with both snake baffles and wire mesh raccoon/cat guards.  Although there were more nesting attempts at Site A (24) than at Site B (15), nesting productivity at site B was much greater (65 fledgings or 88%) compared to that of site A (27 fledgings or 25%).

male bluebird perched on a stem

Immature male bluebird at Greenbrier Park, about 40 days after hatching.

Hopefully the Bob Hammond Trail and others like it, with their dedicated monitors,  will continue to keep the common Eastern Bluebird common here and everywhere for the years to come.

–From Rivanna Master Naturalist volunteer Ann Dunn, who is also the Albemarle County coordinator for the Virginia Bluebird Society’s nest box monitoring program.  Ann Dunn and RMN volunteer Mary Tillman recently led an Advanced Training session on bluebird monitoring for our chapter.

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Young Students Learn Nature Drawing Skills from An Expert

image of young students looking at and drawing natural objects such as pine cones and seeds


Lara Call Gastinger, a class of 2013 Master Naturalist, has started an afterschool Nature Drawing club at Burnley Moran Elementary. For six weeks (and each meeting for 1 ½ hours), Lara takes 10 students (mostly 1st graders) outside to find, observe, and document what they find in nature.

From Lara:
“They began by making nature sketchbooks with twigs and rubber bands. On a particularly stunning spring day, they sat under a tree in front of the school finding rocks, hemlock cones, tiny blooming speedwells, grass, pine needles and oak leaves. Our second meeting was inside (due to the snow and cold) but we had plenty of nuts and dried specimens to touch, describe, and draw.

Most importantly, was learning that real trees in nature do not look like lollipops. We went outside to observe a real tree and were amazed at its branches, textures, and leaves hanging on. In the next few weeks, we plan on adding watercolor to our sketchbooks.”

Along with being a Virginia Master Naturalist volunteer, Lara is an artist and the head illustrator of the Flora of Virginia.  All the Virginia Master Naturalist volunteers who achieved 2014 recertification are sporting her artwork, as she designed the 2014 recertification pin image of the Virginia spring beauty wildflower.


young student sitting outside sketching in a notebook

Burnley-Moran student practices nature drawing in the field.


image of two notebooks with drawings of trees, one very simple like a lollipop, and the other more complex like a real tree

Before – and – after: Students demonstrate their improvement at nature drawing.

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Observations from a Unique Ecological Area – Maple Flats

group of field trip participants near the pondRivanna Master Naturalist volunteer and chapter field trip leader extraordinaire John Holden sent this report on the latest of the chapter’s annual visits to Maple Flats in Augusta County, and Rivanna Master Naturalist Devin Floyd contributed the fabulous photos!





image of a vernal pond and a tiger salamanderMaple Flats Ponds is a unique place, in the George Washington National Forest about 1 hour from Charlottesville.  It is comprised of several vernal sinkhole ponds in Alluvial deposits overlying Limestone and Dolomite, and it is drained by 2 small crystal clear streams.  There is also one permanent pond, fed by seven springs.  It is one of the best salamander sites in the East. In 2013 we found 7 species, in about 2 hours time.  It also is and has been home to Red-headed Woodpeckers and Wood ducks.  You can learn more about the unique ecology of the area and some of the interesting species found there at http://www.asecular.com/forests/mapleflats.htm, written by geologist and environmentalist Robert F. Mueller.

In a recent Rivanna Chapter field trip, 28 Virginia Master Naturalists, family, and friends braved a cold 40 degree day with a weather forecast promising a 70% chance of rain.  Those 28 were justly rewarded, as we found our first Tiger Salamander, a large striking species up to 13″ in size.  We also found Marbled Salamanders and a Spotted Salamander.  Both Marbled and Spotted salamanders are in the Mole salamander family, comprised of species that spend much of their lives underground.  Both species are associated with vernal pool habitats.  The most common salamander was the Redback and we also saw a Northern Dusky.

image of salamanders and snake

There is reason to offer another trip this Spring, to see species we usually see, the Red and the Slimy salamanders. We were also treated to seeing Hooded Mergansers, Ring-necked and Wood Ducks on the ponds.

Chapter members should watch the Listserv and the website for Salamander trip # 2, in April . If you want to go on your own to the unmarked trails and trailhead, John Holden would be happy to assist with directions.






up-close images of plants and salamanders


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